Leo lions


leo lions

Am Leo- Lions-Service-Day informieren die Lions- und LEO-Clubs in Deutschland die breite Öffentlichkeit über die Ziele der Lions-Bewegung und über die. Leo-Lions-Clubs erleichtern Leos, die ihr Studium abschließen, sowie sich qualifizierenden jungen Erwachsenen (bis 30 Jahre) den Clubübergang, da ihnen. Liebe LEOs & Lions, Für das folgende Clubjahr haben wir uns vorgenommen die Zusammenarbeit und den gegenseitigen Austausch zwischen LEOs und Lions.

But Leo isn't self-aggrandizing or unwilling to roll up those sleeves and do the work: What's In Your Future? Get answers now with a video psychic reading.

But it's not all hard work for Lions. Intense and energetic, Leos thrive on social interactions and have no problem making friends—although pinning them down to spend time with you is another story.

Leos put themselves first, and will turn down a plan that doesn't fit with their agenda or idea of fun.

This trait has gained them an unfair reputation for arrogance. But on the flip side, when a Lion chooses to spend time with you, it's genuinely because he or she wants to.

Leos are passionate in all pursuits, including relationships, and take it upon themselves to be the best partner you've ever had.

They love grand gestures, and they want to show the world how attentive and caring they can be. They also can't resist flashiness and often buy their partner the biggest and best presents.

Leo is an adventurer, seeking to balance an intense life of social obligations and travel with plenty of downtime to relax and luxuriate. A captive Asiatic male with a thick mane that is mostly dark.

A pride of lion headed by one male at Masai Mara , Kenya. Lioness in a burst of speed while hunting in the Serengeti. Four lionesses catching a cape buffalo in the Serengeti.

Lion hunting , Lion-baiting , and Lion taming. Cultural depictions of lions. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.

Johns Hopkins University Press. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Tomus I decima, reformata ed.

Cassell's Latin Dictionary 5th ed. Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos.

Verlag der Kakao-Compagnie Theodor Reichardt. A Fossil Record from ". Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. Journal of the Geological Society of India.

Archived from the original PDF on 25 September The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement Archived from the original PDF on Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Archived from the original PDF on 8 August Retrieved 4 September Implications for its ex situ conservation".

Cat News Special Issue Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.

Veröffentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatssammlung Tracing the origins of a lion Panthera leo living in Gabon". Pantherinae , and the influence of fossil taxa and missing characters".

Deutschland in der Urzeit in German. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. Klima und Tierwelt im Wandel in German.

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Mystery Cats of the World. The Rosen Publishing Group. Retrieved 4 July The Story of Leopons. Retrieved 25 January Archived from the original PDF on 28 July Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion.

Volume 65 of Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. Zoological Society of London. Walker's Mammals of the World.

Wild Cats of the World. Retrieved 1 September By any other mane". A Field Guide to Indian Mammals. Retrieved 7 July One Is Likely a Female". Retrieved 18 April Open Science Repository Biology: The White Lions of Timbavati.

Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Maneless lions live one guy per pride". The behavior guide to African mammals: University of California Press.

The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved on 31 July University of Edinburgh, UK: Department of Forestry and Natural Resources.

Mpala Research Centre, Nanyuki: Journal of Animal Ecology. African Journal of Ecology. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.

Retrieved 18 February African Lion Working Group. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 20 July African Wildlife Foundation website.

Retrieved 6 June A Study of Predation and Social Behaviour. Carnivore Conservation 1st ed. Lions and Hyenas DVD.

Diagnosing and treating causes of decline". Retrieved 21 November Their Natural History, Folklore, and Conservation. Briggs, and Jerry J. Patterns of mammalian reproduction.

The management of wild animals in captivity. University of Chicago Press. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.

The ixodid ticks of Tanzania. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology. Zeitschrift für Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie in German. East African Wildlife Journal.

Archived from the original on 29 September Verhaltensstudien an Katzen in German 2nd ed. Vocal tract characteristics" PDF.

Data collection and spectrogram and waveform analyses" PDF. The Social Life of the Lion: Washington Square East Publishers.

Conservation of African lion PDF. International Foundation for the Conservation of Wildlife. Archived from the original PDF on 10 November The complete fauna of Iran.

International Wildlife 5 5: The East African Magazine. The conservation status and dynamics of a protected African lion Panthera leo population in Kafue National Park, Zambia.

University of Cape Town. Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 1 February Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. The Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica of Gir forest".

Indian Council of Agricultural Research. The Times of India. Retrieved 9 August Introduction to Conservation Genetics. Retrieved 12 September Furthermore, when Asiatic lions were inadvertently bred to African lion subspecies in North America, the fecundity, reproductive success, and spermatozoal development improved dramatically Box 3.

Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 24 September In the Zoo subpage ". Retrieved 5 April The Early History of India.

Retrieved 5 September Social factors underlying declining African lion populations and the effect of incentive-based management in Kenya".

The New York Times. Retrieved 30 July University of Alabama at Birmingham. Archived from the original on 24 June Archived from the original on 24 April How Does Aspirin Find a Headache?

The Lions of Tsavo: Kerbis; Gnoske, Thomas Patrick Journal of East African Natural History. Archived from the original on 30 October The Man-Eaters of Eden: Life and Death in Kruger National Park.

European Journal of Wildlife Research. No More the Tusker. Retrieved 28 March The oldest known paintings in the world.

The Book of Symbols. Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture. The Art Newspaper, 31 January Archived 8 May at the Wayback Machine.

The Hutchinson Dictionary of Symbols. Nachuntersuchungen im frühzeitlichen Königsfriedhof. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts.

African Mythology A to Z. Revue de l'Histoire des Religions in French. Retrieved 3 December Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: The British Museum Press.

Aramaic and figural stamp impressions on bricks of the sixth century BB. Assyrian Sculpture Second ed. Dreams of subversion in medieval Jewish art and literature.

In Sakenfeld, Katharine D. New Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible Volume 3. Archived from the original on 26 September In the fourteenth incarnation, the Lord appeared as Nrisimha and bifurcated the strong body of the atheist Hiranyakasipu with His nails, just as a carpenter pierces cane.

Archived from the original on 26 July A History of the Sikhs: National Portal of India. Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 27 August Government of Sri Lanka.

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Retrieved 30 June Astronomers noted that the star was extremely bloated and said that its interactions with the planet would be an interesting topic for a follow-up.

Astronomers announced the discovery of a large planet called GJ b in , but things kept getting weirder with more observation. In , astronomers announced that GJ b, which is roughly 22 times as massive as Earth, had a huge gas cloud streaming away from it for millions of miles.

Follow-up observations announced in revealed the planet's orbit is also bizarre , as it goes over the star's poles.

That's very different from our own solar system, where the planets' orbits gather around the sun's equator. In late , scientists announced there is a potentially rocky exoplanet called Kb that may be orbiting in the habitable zone of its red dwarf star, meaning that liquid water could exist on its surface.

The planet is about 2. Observations suggest it may be a water world with an ice shell, or a rocky world with a thin atmosphere. Constellations ancient and modern grace the skies year round.

Let's see what you know about the star patterns that appear overhead every night. Start the Quiz 0 of 10 questions complete Constellation Quiz: What's Your Cosmic IQ?

Kim Ann Zimmermann is a contributor to Space. By Kim Ann Zimmermann, Space.

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Leo lions -

Ihre Mitglieder bezeichnen sich selbst als Leos. Die Schweiz bildet den MD Die örtlichen Leo Clubs engagieren sich vor allem auf lokaler und regionaler Ebene. Sie wurde am 5. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Juli bis zum

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While the historical Barbary lion was morphologically distinct, its genetic uniqueness remained questionable. Results showed that four captive lions from Morocco did not exhibit any unique genetic characteristic, but shared mitochondrial haplotypes with West and Central African lions.

They were all part of a major mtDNA grouping that also included Asiatic lion samples. Results provided evidence for the hypothesis that this group developed in East Africa, and about , years ago traveled north and west in the first wave of lion expansion.

It broke up within Africa, and later in Western Asia. African lions probably constitute a single population that interbred during several waves of migration since the Late Pleistocene.

Historical accounts indicate that in Egypt lions occurred in the Sinai Peninsula , along the Nile , in the Eastern and Western Deserts , in the region of Wadi El Natrun and along the maritime coast of the Mediterranean.

Historical sighting and hunting records from the 19th and 20th centuries show that lions inhabited the range countries of the Atlas Mountains from Tunisia to Morocco.

In Libya , the Barbary lion persisted along the Mediterranean coast until the beginning of the 18th century, and was extirpated in Tunisia by In Algeria, the Barbary lion occurred in the forested hills and mountains between the Pic de Taza in the east, Ouarsenis in the west and the Chelif River plains in the north.

The cedar forests of Chelia and neighbouring mountains harboured lions until about In Morocco, the last recorded shooting of a wild Barbary lion took place in near Tizi n'Tichka in the Atlas Mountains.

A small remnant population may have survived in remote montane areas into the early s. In the early 20th century, when Barbary lions were not common any more, they were sighted in pairs or in small family groups comprising a male and female lion with one or two cubs.

Analysis of these sightings indicate that lions retained living in prides even when under increasing persecution, particularly in the eastern Maghreb.

The size of prides was likely similar to prides living in sub-Saharan habitats, whereas the density of the Barbary lion population is considered to have been lower than in moister habitats.

When Barbary stags and gazelles became scarce in the Atlas Mountains, lions preyed on herds of livestock that were rather carefully tended.

Sympatric predators in this area included the African leopard and African brown bear. The lions kept in the menagerie at the Tower of London in the Middle Ages were Barbary lions, as shown by DNA testing on two well-preserved skulls excavated at the Tower between and In , the lions in the Tower of London were transferred to improved enclosures at the London Zoo on the orders of the Duke of Wellington.

The lions in the Rabat Zoo exhibited characteristics thought typical for the Barbary lion. Some were moved back to the palace in In the late s, new lion enclosures were built in Temara near Rabat.

Nonetheless, genes of the Barbary lion are likely to be present in common European zoo lions, since this was one of the most frequently introduced subspecies.

Many lions in European and American zoos, which are managed without subspecies classification, are most likely descendants of Barbary lions.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the Addis Ababa Zoo kept 16 adult lions. With their dark, brown manes extending through the front legs, they looked like Barbary or Cape lions.

Their ancestors were caught in southwestern Ethiopia as part of a zoological collection for Emperor Haile Selassie I. In March , two lion cubs were moved to the Texas Zoo in Victoria, Texas, where efforts were made to preserve Barbary lions under the WildLink International conservation programme.

Whether the cubs are of Barbary lion descent was not determined. The lion appeared frequently in early Egyptian art and literature. Lion-headed figures and amulets were excavated in tombs in the Aegean islands of Crete , Euboea , Rhodes , Paros and Chios.

They are associated with Sekhmet and date to the early Iron Age between the 9th and 6th centuries BC.

In Roman North Africa , lions were regularly captured by experienced hunters for venatio spectacles in amphitheatres. Often passionate and enthusiastic speakers, Mercury in Leo people get their message across with zeal.

Some people with this position have developed a perhaps more sophisticated manner in which they present their ideas and thoughts, and these natives possess admirable style and warmth.

Depending on the confidence level of the whole individual with this placement of Mercury, a stubbornness in the face of criticism or over-sensitivity to anything less than praise is present.

Whatever the reaction, Mercury in Leo natives can be mentally arrogant. Mercury, by nature, is detached and reasonable.

In Leo, however, the ego comes into play very strongly when it comes to intellectual analysis. With intellect and ego so closely tied, the ability to separate fact from fiction can be impaired.

In some, boasting may be a problem. Probably the best way to handle this position is to find self-expression in some creative field. Mercury in Leo natives can be magnificent story-tellers, for example, mainly because they have such a wonderful sense of drama.

They speak and write with heart. Some Famous People with Mercury in Leo: When Venus in Leo people are in love, they are proud, even boastful.

This position of Venus can turn humble Virgo Suns or retiring Cancer Suns into somewhat demanding lovers. Venus in Leo loves to court and be courted, and they need to feel very special.

They are warm, generous, and even grand. Be prepared for their displays: Venus in Leo wants to appear experienced in love, even if they have little or no experience whatsoever!

They are also threatened by indifferent or impersonal behavior on your part. Although their needs for physical expression through sex are generally quite strong, their need for love is perhaps even stronger.

It is hard for Venus in Leo people to separate love and sex, and even their most erotic fantasies are infused with love and affection. For this reason, few Venus in Leo folk would last long in a relationship that is mostly sexual.

On the flip side, they may last longer in a love-only relationship in the absence of satisfying sex, but they are unlikely to feel very satisfied.

Pleasing Venus in Leo involves paying loads of attention to them. Respect and appreciate them, always. Put up with their childlike moments and their tall tales.

They want to be seen as attractive by you, so avoid at all costs! They actually lose interest when they perceive the slightest loss of interest in their partner, and you can expect that any letdown will be acted out in a dramatic fashion.

Remind them, in a gentle way, that your emotions count too. If you are feeling a little jealous, let them know. Remember, to Venus in Leo, your small jealousies are affirmations that you find them attractive and expect the rest of the world to as well.

Let them decide where to go on a date, and let them pay too. When Venus in Leo feels loved and appreciated, they reward you with loyalty, a big sense of fun, and plenty of physical expressions of their love.

Some Famous People with Venus in Leo: This position of Mars gives a drive for significance. This is a particularly vital position of Mars. Passions run high, and so does desire.

There is a strong will that gives these natives much staying power. Though Mars in Leo people will enjoy the pleasures of risk-taking, they generally have a strong sense of reason at the end of the day.

Mars in Leo people often have well-defined ambitions. They act with authority and power, and their personal magnetism generally endows them with the ability to get what they want.

This is one of the more sexual positions of Mars. While they are rather easy to arouse, their passion is long-standing. Mars in Leo natives enjoy sex more than most, as long as heavy doses of love and romance are part of the package.

In partnership, they demand loyalty and admiration. Impatient with small-mindedness and disloyalty, Mars in Leo natives generally have a strong idealistic streak.

Mars in Leo natives act with their heart. Their ego is tied up with their actions, so that most anything they do becomes a source of great pride.

Though some are self-righteous and quarrelsome, the more sophisticated people with this position are kindly leaders. See also the Sexuality of Mars in Leo.

Male Asiatic lions are solitary or associate with up to three males, forming a loose pride. Pairs of males rest and feed together, and display marking behaviour at the same sites.

Females associate with up to 12 other females, forming a stronger pride together with their cubs. They share large carcasses with each other but seldom share food with males.

Female and male lions associate only when mating. Males in coalitions of three or four individuals exhibit a pronounced hierarchy, in which one male dominates the others.

Dominant males mate more frequently than their coalition partners; during a study carried out between December and December , three females were observed switching mating partners in favour of the dominant male.

The lion is a generalist hypercarnivore [95] and usually hunts in groups. Its prey consists mainly of mammals — particularly ungulates — with a preference for blue wildebeest , plains zebra , African buffalo , gemsbok and giraffe.

Lions kill other predators such as leopard , cheetah and spotted hyena but seldom consume them. In many areas, a small number of species comprise a majority of the lion's diet.

In Serengeti National Park, wildebeest, zebra and Thompson's gazelle form the majority of lion prey. Up to eight species comprise three quarters of a lion's diet.

In October , a pride of up to 30 lions killed and consumed eight African bush elephants that were between four and eleven years old.

The prey-to-predator weight ratio of 10— Young lions first display stalking behaviour at around three months of age, although they do not participate in hunting until they are almost a year old and begin to hunt effectively when nearing the age of two.

Cooperatively hunting lions are usually successful. Males attached to prides do not usually participate in group hunting.

They take advantage of factors that reduce visibility; many kills take place near some form of cover or at night. To protect their cattle from such attacks with that knowledge in mind, farmers have found it effective to paint eyes on the hindquarters of each cow, which is usually enough to make hunting lions think they have been seen and select easier prey.

The lion's attack is short and powerful; they attempt to catch prey with a fast rush and final leap, and usually kill prey by strangulation, [] which can cause cerebral ischemia or asphyxia and results in hypoxaemia or hypoxia.

They also kill prey by enclosing its mouth and nostrils in their jaws, which also results in asphyxia. Cubs suffer most when food is scarce but otherwise all pride members eat their fill, including old and crippled lions, which can live on leftovers.

On hot days, the pride retreats to shade with one or two males standing guard. Lions scavenge on carrion when the opportunity arises; they scavenge animals dead from natural causes such as disease or those that were killed by other predators.

Scavenging lions keep a constant lookout for circling vultures, which indicate the death or distress of an animal.

Lions and spotted hyenas occupy a similar ecological niche and where they coexist they compete for prey and carrion; a review of data across several studies indicates a dietary overlap of Lions seize the kills of spotted hyenas; in the Ngorongoro crater it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas, causing the hyenas to increase their kill rate.

The two species attack one another even when there is no food involved for no apparent reason. Spotted hyenas have adapted by frequently mobbing lions that enter their territories.

Population densities of wild dogs are low in areas where lions are more abundant. Lions have been known to kill crocodiles venturing onto land, [] while the reverse is true for lions entering waterways, evidenced by the occasional lion claw found in crocodile stomachs.

Most lionesses reproduce by the time they are four years of age. During withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which may cause ovulation.

Generation length of the lion is about seven years. She will often hunt alone while the cubs are still helpless, staying relatively close to the den.

Usually, the mother does not integrate herself and her cubs back into the pride until the cubs are six to eight weeks old. Pride lionesses often synchronise their reproductive cycles and communal rearing and suckling of the young, which suckle indiscriminately from any or all of the nursing females in the pride.

The synchronization of births is advantageous because the cubs grow to being roughly the same size and have an equal chance of survival, and sucklings are not dominated by older cubs.

When first introduced to the rest of the pride, lion cubs lack confidence when confronted with adults other than their mother.

They soon begin to immerse themselves in the pride life, however, playing among themselves or attempting to initiate play with the adults.

Male tolerance of the cubs varies — sometimes a male will patiently let the cubs play with his tail or his mane, whereas another may snarl and bat the cubs away.

Weaning occurs after six or seven months. Male lions reach maturity at about three years of age and at four to five years are capable of challenging and displacing adult males associated with another pride.

They begin to age and weaken at between 10 and 15 years of age at the latest. Females often fiercely defend their cubs from a usurping male but are rarely successful unless a group of three or four mothers within a pride join forces against the male.

Both male and female lions may be ousted from prides to become nomads, although most females usually remain with their birth pride.

When a pride becomes too large, however, the youngest generation of female cubs may be forced to leave to find their own territory.

Lions of both sexes may interact homosexually. Lions are shown to be involved in group homosexual and courtship activities; males will also head-rub and roll around with each other before simulating sex together.

Although adult lions have no natural predators, evidence suggests most die violently from attacks by humans or other lions.

Careless lions may be maimed when hunting prey. Ticks commonly infest the ears, neck and groin regions of lions.

Lions sought unsuccessfully to evade the biting flies by climbing trees or crawling into hyena burrows; many perished or migrated and the local population dropped from 70 to 15 individuals.

During the outbreak, several lions died from pneumonia and encephalitis. The virus occurs with high-to-endemic frequency in several wild lion populations but is mostly absent from Asiatic and Namibian lions.

When resting, lion socialisation occurs through a number of behaviours; the animal's expressive movements are highly developed. The most common peaceful, tactile gestures are head rubbing and social licking , [] which have been compared with grooming in primates.

Males tend to rub other males, while cubs and females rub females. The head and neck are the most common parts of the body licked; this behaviour may have arisen out of utility because lions cannot lick these areas themselves.

Lions have an array of facial expressions and body postures that serve as visual gestures. The repertoire of vocalisations is also large; rather than discrete signals, variations in intensity and pitch appear to be central to communication.

Most lion vocalisations are variations of growling, snarling, miaowing and roaring. Other sounds produced include purring, puffing, bleating and humming.

The lion prefers grassy plains and savannahs, scrub bordering rivers and open woodlands with bushes. It is absent from rainforest and rarely enters closed forest.

In Africa, the range of the lion originally spanned most of the central rainforest zone and the Sahara desert. In Eurasia , the lion once ranged from Greece to India; Herodotus reported that lions had been common in Greece in BC; they attacked the baggage camels of the Persian king Xerxes on his march through the country.

Aristotle considered them rare by BC, and by AD, they had been extirpated. Between the late 19th and late 20th centuries, it became extinct in Southwest Asia.

By the late 19th century, the lion had been extirpated in most of northern India and Turkey. There are no subsequent reliable reports from Iran.

Its habitat is a mixture of dry savannah forest and very dry, deciduous scrub forest. Habitat loss and conflicts with humans are considered to be the most significant threats to the species.

Zambia's Kafue National Park is a key refuge for lions where frequent, uncontrolled bushfires combined with hunting of lions and prey species limits the ability of the lion population to recover.

When favourable habitat is inundated in the wet season, lions expand home ranges and travel greater distances, and cub mortality is high. In , a population of up to lions that was previously thought to have been extirpated was filmed in the Alatash National Park , Ethiopia, close to the Sudanese border.

The West African lion population is isolated from the one in Central Africa, with little or no exchange of breeding individuals.

In , it was estimated that this population consists of about animals, including fewer than mature individuals.

They persist in three protected areas in the region, mostly in one population in the W A P protected area complex, shared by Benin , Burkina Faso and Niger.

This population is listed as Critically Endangered. These were the first sightings of lions in the country in 39 years. Five hair samples from this lion were collected and compared with samples from museum specimens that had been shot in the area in By , no lions were recorded in the protected area so the population is considered locally extinct.

The population has risen from approximately lions in to about in The presence of numerous human habitations close to the National Park results in conflict between lions, local people and their livestock.

Lions are included in the Species Survival Plan , a coordinated attempt by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to increase its chances of survival.

The plan was started in for the Asiatic lion, but was suspended when it was found that most Asiatic lions in North American zoos were not genetically pure , having been hybridised with African lions.

The African lion plan started in , and focused on the South African population, although there are difficulties in assessing the genetic diversity of captive lions because most individuals are of unknown origin, making the maintenance of genetic diversity a problem.

The former popularity of the Barbary lion as a zoo animal means captive lions are likely descended from Barbary lion stock.

WildLink International in collaboration with Oxford University launched an ambitious International Barbary Lion Project with the aim of identifying and breeding Barbary lions in captivity for eventual reintroduction into a national park in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Lions are part of a group of exotic animals that have been central to zoo exhibits since the late 18th century; members of this group are invariably large vertebrates and include elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, large primates and other big cats; zoos sought to gather as many of these species as possible.

They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes.

His two sisters, born in , were still alive in August At the ancient Egyptian cities of Taremu and Per-Bast were temples dedicated to the lion goddesses of Egypt, Sekhmet and Bast , and at Taremu there was a temple dedicated to the son of the deity Maahes the lion prince, where lions were kept and allowed to roam within the temple.

The Greeks called the city Leontopolis "City of Lions" and documented that practice. Lions were kept and bred by Assyrian kings as early as BC, [] and Alexander the Great was said to have been presented with tame lions by the Malhi of northern India.

Roman notables including Sulla , Pompey and Julius Caesar often ordered the mass slaughter of hundreds of lions at a time.

Marco Polo reported that Kublai Khan kept lions. The first European "zoos" spread among noble and royal families in the 13th century, and until the 17th century were called seraglios ; at that time they came to be called menageries , an extension of the cabinet of curiosities.

They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe. By extension, menageries and seraglios served as demonstrations of the dominance of humanity over nature; the defeat of such natural "lords" by a cow in astonished spectators and the flight of an elephant before a rhinoceros drew jeers.

The frequency of such fights slowly declined in the 17th century with the spread of menageries and their appropriation by commoners.

The tradition of keeping big cats as pets lasted into the 19th century, at which time it was seen as highly eccentric. The presence of lions at the Tower of London was intermittent, being restocked when a monarch or his consort, such as Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI , either sought or were given animals.

Records indicate animals in the Tower of London were kept in poor conditions in the 17th century, in contrast to more open conditions in Florence at the time.

The trade in wild animals flourished alongside improved colonial trade of the 19th century; lions were considered fairly common and inexpensive.

Although they would barter higher than tigers, they were less costly than larger or more difficult-to-transport animals such as the giraffe and hippopotamus, and much less than giant pandas.

Lions were kept in cramped and squalid conditions at London Zoo until a larger lion house with roomier cages was built in the s. Hagenbeck designed lion enclosures for both Melbourne Zoo and Sydney's Taronga Zoo ; although his designs were popular, the use of bars and caged enclosures prevailed in many zoos until the s.

Lion hunting has occurred since ancient times and was often a royal pastime. The earliest surviving record of lion hunting is an ancient Egyptian inscription dated circa BC that mentions Pharaoh Amenhotep III killing lions "with his own arrows" during the first ten years of his rule.

The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears.

Lions were also hunted during the Mughal Empire , where Emperor Jahangir is said to have excelled at it. Royal hunting of lions was intended to demonstrate the power of the king over nature.

The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage. Historically, lions were hunted by individuals, however, due to reduced lion populations, elders discourage solo lion hunts.

This resulted in big cats being always suspected of being man-eaters, representing "both the fear of nature and the satisfaction of having overcome it".

Lion-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of lions in combat with other animals, usually dogs. Records of it exist in ancient times through until the seventeenth century.

It was finally banned in Vienna by and England in The term is also often used for the taming and display of other big cats such as tigers, leopards and cougars.

The practice began in the early 19th century by Frenchman Henri Martin and American Isaac Van Amburgh , who both toured widely and whose techniques were copied by a number of followers.

Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore "the lions of Mysore" , an idea that Amburgh quickly borrowed. These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows and entered public consciousness in the early 20th century with cinema.

In demonstrating the superiority of human over animal, lion taming served a purpose similar to animal fights of previous centuries.

The now-iconic lion tamer's chair was possibly first used by American Clyde Beatty — One well-publicised case is the Tsavo maneaters ; in , 28 officially recorded railway workers building the Kenya-Uganda Railway were taken by lions over nine months during the construction of a bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenya.

The infirmity theory, including tooth decay, is not favoured by all researchers; an analysis of teeth and jaws of man-eating lions in museum collections suggests that while tooth decay may explain some incidents, prey depletion in human-dominated areas is a more likely cause of lion predation on humans.

The authors note the relationship is well-attested among other pantherines and primates in the fossil record. The lion's proclivity for man-eating has been systematically examined.

American and Tanzanian scientists report that man-eating behaviour in rural areas of Tanzania increased greatly from to At least villagers were attacked and many eaten over this period — a number far exceeding the Tsavo attacks.

While the expansion of villages into bush country is one concern, the authors argue conservation policy must mitigate the danger because in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths.

Cases in Lindi in which lions seize humans from the centres of substantial villages have been documented. According to Robert R. Frump, Mozambican refugees regularly crossing Kruger National Park, South Africa, at night are attacked and eaten by lions; park officials have said man-eating is a problem there.

Frump said thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced refugees to cross the park at night.

For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly crossed the park in daytime with little harm. Packer estimates between and Tanzanians are killed each year by wild animals and that lions are thought to kill at least 70 of these.

According to Packer between and , lions attacked people in Tanzania and killed Packer and Ikanda are among the few conservationists who believe western conservation efforts must take account of these matters because of ethical concerns about human life and the long-term success of conservation efforts and lion preservation.

A man-eating lion was killed by game scouts in Southern Tanzania in April Baldus, the GTZ wildlife programme coordinator, said it was likely that the lion preyed on humans because it had a large abscess beneath a cracked molar and wrote, "This lion probably experienced a lot of pain, particularly when it was chewing".

The "All-Africa" record of man-eating generally is considered to be a collection of incidents between the early s and the late s in modern-day Tanzania inflicted by a pride known as the "Njombe lions".

Game warden and hunter George Rushby eventually dispatched the pride, which over three generations is thought to have killed and eaten 1, to 2, people in Njombe district.

Sometimes, Asiatic lions may become man-eaters. The area of the Gir sanctuary is now insufficient to sustain their large number [] and lions have moved outside it, making them a potential threat to people in and around the park.

The lion is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture. It has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature.

The lion has been depicted as "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts", and thus became a popular symbol for royalty and stateliness.

Depictions of lions are known from the Upper Paleolithic period. Carvings and paintings of lions discovered in the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 15, to 17, years old.

The ancient Egyptians portrayed several of their war deities as lionesses, which they revered as fierce hunters. Egyptian deities associated with lions include: The lion was also believed to act as a guide to the underworld, through which the sun was believed to pass each night.

The presence of lion-footed tombs found in Egypt and images of mummies carried on the backs of lions suggests this close association of the lions with the underworld.

In Sub-Saharan Africa , cultural views of the lion have varied by region. In some cultures, the lion symbolises power and royalty, and some rulers had the word "lion" in their nickname.

In parts of West Africa, to be compared with a lion was considered to be a great compliment. Lions were considered the top class in these cultures' social hierarchies.

In parts of West and East Africa, the lion is associated with healing and is regarded as the link between seers and the supernatural.

In other East African traditions, the lion is the symbol of laziness. The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times, where it was strongly associated with kingship.

The theme of the royal lion hunt, a common motif in the early iconography in West Asia, symbolized death and resurrection; the continuation of life was ensured by the killing of a god-like animal.

In some stone reliefs depicting the Royal hunt of lions, the lion's divinity and courage are equated with the divinity and courage of the king.

The lion is the biblical emblem of the tribe of Judah and the later Kingdom of Judah. In the Book of Judges , Samson kills a lion as he travels to visit a Philistine woman.

The power and ferocity of the lion is invoked when describing the anger of God Amos 3: The book of Isaiah uses the imagery of a lion laying with a calf and child, and eating straw to portray the harmony of creation Isa In the Book of Revelation , a lion, an ox, a man and an eagle are seen on a heavenly throne in John's vision; Rev 4: In the Puranic texts of Hinduism , Narasimha "man-lion" a half-lion, half-man incarnation or avatar of Vishnu , is worshipped by his devotees and saved the child devotee Prahlada from his father, the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu ; [] Vishnu takes the form of half-man, half-lion] creature in Narasimha, where he has a human torso and lower body, and a lion-like face and claws.

It was originally used only by Rajputs , a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in , the Sikhs also adopted the name "Singh" due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh.

Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by over 20 million Sikhs worldwide. The Asiatic lion is found as an emblem on numerous flags and coats of arms across Asia, including on the National Emblem of India.

The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art ; it was first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn period fifth or sixth century BC and became more popular during the Han Dynasty BC — AD when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection.

Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty after the sixth century AD, lions were usually depicted wingless with shorter, thicker bodies and curly manes.

Lion-headed figures and amulets were excavated in tombs in the Greek islands of Crete , Euboea , Rhodes , Paros and Chios. They are associated with the Egyptian deity Sekhmet and date to the early Iron Age between the 9th and 6th centuries BC.

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